Stonehenge, built circa 2000-1500 BC, displays the most basic elements of design. Clearly, there is a repetition of verticals around the circle within a circle. Horizontals cap those elements, tying the boulders into a single composition. There is symmetry and balance in the perfectly designed shapes. While current theory believes that the structure functioned as a temple for the Druids, astronomically aligned to the summer solstice, in terms of design, these early peoples constructed a monument that is stable and visually engaging.

 

The technology is obviously quite simplistic akin to a house of cards. The horizontals stabilize the verticals, in what is called a post-lintel system. However, this technological form doubles as the design element. Clearly, the building is in a ruined condition, and we can only hypothesize as to the original intentions of the architect. Was color added to the boulders?  Any applied ornament or decoration of wood or thatch?