What about the representation of fabric and folds in photographs? Barbara Morgan's Martha Graham, 1942, is a photo, but does that necessarily make it dress? Even though the model, Martha Graham, actually was wearing that dress at that moment, the photographer decided to use her “artistic vision” to push the button on the camera when the dress turned into drapery.

The rhythmic pattern of verticals along her sleeve, the diagonals in her elbow (balancing that in her chin), and diagonals fanning out in a spoke-like configuration along her skirt suggest that compositional issues of unity, repetition of line and shape, and balance overrode naturalistic concerns for representing clothing as worn.  




The photograph of the Kabuki actor, Ennosuke Ichikawa III, taken in 1981, is similar to the above photo by Morgan in its representation of drapery. Actors may wear particular costumes to increase their visibility on stage. The large panels, squared sleeves, and large bold patterns create an image of largeness. Due to the layering and sewing of the panels, no body is seen beneath. The lines of the arms, torso, legs, etc and hidden beneath the fabric. Even when the body moves, the fabric retains its geometric silhouette. This is an example of theatrical costume as drapery, designed for the visual effect of the design elements.