The second issue important to sociological contexts is fragmentation. Once a body has been reduced to merely an object to be manipulated at the artistís will, the artist is free to take the next step and rework it. Fragmentation is the breaking of the body. The artistís disegno interno triumphs over disegno esterno.


An example of fragmentation is Ingresí La Grande Odalisque. Not only has she been objectified into the embodiment of sexual restlessness, but as a harem slave she is without power or authority to self-represent.

Ingres, in effect, reworked her spinal column. According to chiropractors, she may have at least three extra vertebrae in her back. In terms of proportion, if the viewer follows her back downward, her butt crease is too low, evidencing willful distortion by the artist. Why would an artist purposely distort a body in this manner? It is a way for him to claim/assert authority over the woman. It is a male chauvinist power play. While the artist could not batter and redistribute the parts of his wifeís body without going to jail and receiving the death penalty, such behavior is sanctioned within the realm of art. Remember the graphic design image produced by the Guerrilla Girls, Do women have to be naked to get into the Met. Museum?, 1989? These issues of objectification and fragmentation are exactly those being criticized by contemporary feminists.