As mentioned in earlier contexts, graphic design and Zoffany’s painting of the English tourists visiting the art gallery in Florence, Italy, the Tribuna, artists must take into consideration the audience’s age, gender, faith, and economic and social interests in order to establish a strong channel for communication. The success of a work of art engages not only the widest audience possible, but also tries to elicit the strongest engagement or level of interest from that audience.

Psychoanalytic interpretations of art, based on the theories of Sigmund Freud and others, focus on our subliminal or subconscious engagement with visual images and other stimuli in the world. Two psychic forces that we will discuss are narcissism and fetishism.