If men in Greek society were as strong as this, they could win every battle and Olympic medal. Remember the Late Greek/Hellenistic Laocoon and His Two Sons? Even though Laocoon is aged, his body is still that of a perfect athlete without body fat. Muscles and movement are perfectly represented as he wrestles with the serpents, but even in this example, Laocoon’s body is posed in an S-curve, as he also is objectified and on display (seated on a pedestal). While he serves as the virtuous and athletic role model for the viewer, his sons look up to him in admiration as well. Very rarely, and only in its later phases, did Greek art approach severe disegno esterno and the representation of the naked. As in the Aphrodite of Melos, humans were made into gods and gods into humans, placing most of the art works into the realm of the Neoplatonic.



Roman Art. As the Romans absorbed the Greek and Etruscan cultures into their own, they also adopted the artistic styles of their neighbors. Many critics say that the Romans lacked creativity. While they represented middle class citizens with their naked realities, rulers, like Augustus, were depicted as partly divine and Neoplatonic. Compare Augustus, with the Greek Spear Bearer. The fact that they share the same head, facial features, body proportions, legs, and footing evidences how parallel in aesthetic intentions the two sculptures are. In its context of art in the service of politics, Augustus is the masculine and muscular symbol of his nation.