At this point, we will list the
various issues which became increasingly important and inspirational for
An increase in patriotism, nationalist spirit, and self-sacrifice (secular
martyrdom) all for the betterment of mankind.
· Democracy: With the concept of one man equals
one vote (women excluded), there is a shift in artistic representation and
cultural focus from the lives of the aristocrats to those of the masses. In a
democratic society, the common man has the same electoral power as the rich,
and therefore should get equal exposure/representation in art.
· Industrial Revolution: Populations who used to
live in rural areas and engaged in agriculture moved to the cities as factory
labor. Therefore, narratives should shift from rural and peaceful scenes
to the congestion and chaos of modern cities.
· Capitalism: The growth in the production of
goods and consumer markets fueled a modernization in lifestyle. Additionally,
the concept of the “laborer” was further defined in the writings of Karl
Marx. The worker was a pawn in the hands of management resulting in a cheapening
(or dehumanization) of his existence. The artist was now defined as a laborer
producing a consumer good for sale to a target audience. Like any other
laborer, the artist hoped to earn a profit.
· Feminism: Even though women would not gain
the right to vote till the early 20th century, women made economic and legal
strides. They entered the workforce and tried to break free of the
patriarchal stereotype of the woman at home, barefoot and pregnant.