At this point, we will list the various issues which became increasingly important and inspirational for artists. 

·       Revolutions and Political Reform: An increase in patriotism, nationalist spirit, and self-sacrifice (secular martyrdom) all for the betterment of mankind.

·       Democracy: With the concept of one man equals one vote (women excluded), there is a shift in artistic representation and cultural focus from the lives of the aristocrats to those of the masses. In a democratic society, the common man has the same electoral power as the rich, and therefore should get equal exposure/representation in art.

·       Industrial Revolution: Populations who used to live in rural areas and engaged in agriculture moved to the cities as factory labor. Therefore, narratives should shift from rural and peaceful scenes to the congestion and chaos of modern cities.

·       Capitalism: The growth in the production of goods and consumer markets fueled a modernization in lifestyle. Additionally, the concept of the “laborer” was further defined in the writings of Karl Marx. The worker was a pawn in the hands of management resulting in a cheapening (or dehumanization) of his existence. The artist was now defined as a laborer producing a consumer good for sale to a target audience. Like any other laborer, the artist hoped to earn a profit.

·       Feminism: Even though women would not gain the right to vote till the early 20th century, women made economic and legal strides. They entered the workforce and tried to break free of the patriarchal stereotype of the woman at home, barefoot and pregnant.