After W.W.II, American society was optimistic in the future and the abilities of technology, industrialization, capitalism and scientific inquiry to improve peopleís lives. Even though the horrendous realities of W.W.II exposed manís inhumanity to man, the germination of the Cold War, and economic inequities around the world, hope was that people would be inspired to discuss differences, settle problems, and live harmoniously. Forum like the United Nations and failed attempts at developing a universal language were well intentioned.

The modern is the optimistic belief in the future. Artists responded to this Geist by investigating styles that would transcend race, ethnicity, nationalism and religion. The modern is the glorification of a universal and cross-cultural artistic objective.